The cancers related to gynecology mainly involve the cervix, the uterus and the cancer of the ovary. The pattern, the causes as well as the treatment of each type is different. In India cancer of the cervix is most common, whereas in the western world, breast cancer tops the list. With the advancements in the field of medicine, early detection and screening procedures have become available, improving the prognosis to many fold.
Cancer of Cervix:
Cervix is the lower most part of the uterus, visible on gynecological examination. Its cancer is related to infection of cervix with a virus called Human Papilloma Virus (HPV). There are several high risk factors associated with cervical cancer like early age at first sexual relation, multiple sex partners, sexual exposure to a person infected with HPV virus. Pap smear is the screening modality available for early detection, though it is not 100% sensitive. The symptoms could be white discharge per vaginum, foul smelling or blood stained, unexpected bleeding following sexual relation and in advanced stages urinary and stool related problems. It is a fatal disease which requires surgery to remove uterus, cervix, ovaries and surrounding structures if diagnosed in initial stages. More advanced stages require radiotherapy, wherein radiations are given to the pelvic area to burn out the disease. It has a lot of side effects on the body and the life expectancy is reduced drastically. An injectable vaccine is available for the prevention of cervical cancer, which acts by preventing infection with HPV virus, but it should be preferably be taken at an age prior to the beginning of sexual behavior, before marriage or before exposure to the virus.