Diabetes In Pregnancy

Diabetes In Pregnancy

Diabetes is a condition of high levels of blood sugars, which has detrimental effects on the various organs of the body. A woman could have diabetes prior to being pregnant or can develop diabetes for the first time in the pregnancy, due to the changes brought about in the body by the pregnancy hormones. The later type is called gestational diabetes, and it does come back to normal after the delivery of the baby, though there are higher chances of such women to develop diabetes later in life.


Diabetes occurs due to the deficiency of insulin hormone or due to resistance of the body to the available insulin in the body. Diabetes  in pregnancy affects the mother as well as the baby, hence it is essential to control the blood sugars.


Symptoms:

  • No symptoms most of the times
  • Excessive thirst
  • Excessive urination
  • Poor control of infections




Risk factors:

  • Previous pregnancy with diabetes
  • Family history of diabetes
  • Increased age of mother
  • Obese mother



Indians by virtue of their ethnicity are at an increased risk of diabetes, due to which it is advisable to screen for diabetes at the first antenatal visit.


Concerns for the baby:

  • Increased weight of baby and risk of diseases later in the baby
  • Increased chances of Cesarean delivery
  • Baby may need intensive care management
  • Sudden death of the unborn baby




Management:

  • Regular monitoring of blood sugars in the mother
  • Strict control of blood sugars
  • Screening in the mother for effects of diabetes on her body organs like kidneys, eyes, etc
  • Regular exercise and weight reduction after delivery
  • Following strict dietician advice regarding food intake
  • Medications or insulin supplementation, individualised